As Central Asia has become progressively connected to the universe in the last two decennaries, more and more people are seeking to get a solid appreciation of English, the lingua-franca of the universe. In the context of globalisation, a good bid of English is non considered as a particular endowment any longer, but merely a basic accomplishment. As a consequence, English has been incorporated in school course of study in most non-English speech production states of the universe and Central Asia is no exclusion.
The English in Villages ( EiV ) Programme has been launched in 2006 by the School of Professional and Continuing Education, University of Central Asia ( SPCE, UCA ) in the poorest parts of three Central Asiatic democracies: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. The chief intent of the programme is to better the opportunities of immature people of one of the poorest, remotest and cragged parts of Central Asia for support and advancement life by supplying private auxiliary tutoring in partnership with public schools of the part. The chief purpose of the programme direction is to help pupils of the part in bettering their bid of English. This will assist them in fostering their instruction, use for higher educational establishments and take part in exchange programmes in future.
The programme is offered at three degrees harmonizing to students ‘ bid of English linguistic communication: simple, pre-intermediate and intermediate degrees for students of 7th, 8th and 9th classs of public secondary schools. It is a short and intensive programme that runs for six months, while the school academic twelvemonth lasts for 9 months and is implemented as an excess co-curricular activity after school. In the beginning of its launch, the programme was heartily welcomed by its all stakeholders: instructors, students, parents, school disposal and regional instruction bureaus. But after two old ages of its operation, it has lost its initial ‘popularity ‘ and was found by many students and their parents, local communities, and even by the programme direction, to be non every bit efficient as it was ab initio planned.
The chief default of the EiV programme direction is a deficiency of ‘proper ‘ course of study. As a bad illustration of aims model, it has merely normative, text edition dependent course of study and a few times revised programme proposal that contains information chiefly approximately geographical and fiscal Scopess of programme and small said about the organisation of the acquisition procedure. By and large, therefore far, many educationists in most post-soviet states face up with confusions that exist between course of study and course of study. Largely, they merely merely compare them, which means that course of study is considered in a really narrow significance that is identified as measure by measure prescribed procedure of ‘knowledge transmittal ‘ . As Kelly ( 2009, p.9 ) provinces:
‘aˆ¦ this sort of definition of course of study is restricting in more than one manner and that is likely to halter instead than to help the planning of course of study development. Curriculum must offer more than a statement about the knowledge-content or simply the topics which schooling is to learn or convey or present. It must travel far beyond this to an account ‘ .
However, holding reviewed the bing programme proposal and class course of study exhaustively, I have found the undermentioned issues:
Lack of course of study guidelines for instructors ( my italics ) except for Teacher ‘s Book which comes together with a Students ‘ Book
The purposes are non good structured, and neither larning results nor learning schemes are specified
Potential challenges are non identified: academic dishonesty, societal inequality, and misbalance and societal tensenesss between the members of mainstream instruction and local communities that may be caused by programme execution
Traditional text edition attack or text edition dependence – content of the so called course of study, teaching/learning schemes and appraisal signifiers are prescribed by the text edition that sometimes do non turn to the demands of scholars
Strictly fixed summational – terminal of flat appraisal. There is no formative appraisal that will help the students to larn and maintain them motivated in going responsible for their acquisition results. Summational appraisal is made of trials provided in the text edition used during the class. I strongly believe that available commercially produced trials are non assessment of communicative aims and do non back up the acquisition procedure as they are non adjusted to the demands and abilities of peculiar group of scholars.
Hence, foremost, pupils become unmotivated and the degree of their attainment is lower than expected and stated in the principle of the EiV programme. Many pupils drop out from the class. Second, the instructors find themselves in contradictory state of affairs within the content of the text edition, when all category interactions are purely determined by the text edition. They are ‘forced ‘ to follow it unit by unit, exercising by exercising, that leaves both for instructors and scholars a small infinite for intercession. Third, programme execution causes misbalance in the public schools and local communities. Peoples in these countries live in rather little communities where everybody knows each other closely. Execution of the EiV programme in the signifier of private auxiliary tutoring, owing to societal unfairnesss, may do struggles in these little communities which is unwise to make. Therefore, the course of study policy shapers need to develop a course of study with the histories of the fact that private auxiliary tutoring is rather complex phenomenon with many societal, cultural and economic deductions and challenges ( Bray, 2003 )
As Scotts ( during his talk, 2009 ) notes curriculum is ever a choice and that we need to do a pick depending on the state of affairs. Yes I do hold with it- we need to do a pick that will be explicitly grounded on the purposes and demands of all stakeholders of the acquisition procedure since each state of affairs is alone and we need to utilize that theoretical account of course of study that suits a peculiar state of affairs best. Whilst make up one’s minding which theoretical account to follow in re-designing the course of study for this peculiar programme, factors as geographical location of schools, demands and abilities of both scholars and instructors, handiness of resources, environment, school clime, school edifice, strength of the programme, etc. can non be bypassed since they influence on the procedure and the effectivity of course of study bringing ( Nicholls and Nicholls, 1972 ; Tyler, 1971 ) .
Hence, in the given context, I suggest to utilize of Tyler ‘s ( 1971 ) theoretical account of Rationale Planning within the model of Scientific Curriculum Making when course of study is considered as a ‘linear ‘ procedures based on the undermentioned basic construction:
Purposes and Objectives-what intents are to be attained?
Teaching/learning schemes -What schemes can be used that will assist to accomplish these intents
Organization of these strategies-How best can they be organized?
Evaluation-How can we measure whether the initials intents have been met? ( Tyler,1949 )
The theoretical account has been strongly criticized by many course of study theoreticians ( Kelly, 2009 ; Lawton, 1978 ; Stenhouse, 1970 ; Stenhouse, 1975 ) for:
‘very mechanical signifiers of learning which focuses on how the cognition is given instead than on how the pupils learn since instruction in Tyler ‘s theoretical account is considered as agencies towards terminals ;
an premise that if something can non be measured or is unexpected so it should non be a portion of larning procedures ;
‘mistaking the nature of cognition ‘ while implementing inflexible attacks in schoolroom when the scholars are less free in showing their pure larning results ;
sabotaging instructors ‘ liberty ( Scott, 2008 ; Stenhouse, 1975 ; Walsh, 1997 )
While some of these unfavorable judgments are doubtless applicable to some signifiers of aims model, I believe that this word picture of the field as a whole over-generalized and most significantly, they are unjust towards the aims theoretical account of course of study in learning foreign linguistic communications. As Nicholls and Nicholls ( 1972 ) argue, instructors can direct these unexpected chances towards aims which are considered as of import. Regarded in this manner, unexpected chances lead to come on instead than to mere recreation. On the other manus, a instructor with no preset aims might be accused of utilizing such chances for amusement intents or as impermanent recreation. Both Stenhouse ( 1975 ) and Kelly ( 1989 ) as cited in Walsh ( 1997 ) acknowledge this fact. In add-on, in reexamining the behavioural aims curriculum, even Stenhouse ( 1975, p.53 ) as one of the devouring oppositions of aims model himself summarizes that those aims come from the surveies of:
‘aˆ¦ . a consideration of the scholars themselves, modern-day life outside the school, the nature of topics, the psychological science of acquisition and a doctrine, or a set of values. Then the inquiry arises how best to explicate one ‘s intents as a practical usher to action, and Tyler considers the job of ‘stating aims in a signifier to be helpful in choosing acquisition experiences and in steering learning ‘ .
As it was mentioned earlier, the English in Villages programme should be determined with the histories of assorted facts and fortunes that are partly mentioned by Stenhouse ( 1975 ) above.
For now, it merelyA demands to be noted that the aims theoretical account has played an tremendous function in determining national course of studies of many states including the US and UK. Furthermore, it has been welcomed by most policy shapers and even instructors for easy functionality and systematized construction that so helps them in be aftering their instruction procedure ( Marsh, 2004 ; Scott, 2008 ) . And it is reasonably possible to utilize aims model and avoid the points mentioned by Scott ( 2008 ) by carefully choosing both acquisition and learning rules based on general aims that would assist to do:
Learners become motivated and responsible for their acquisition and portion those duties with instructors ;
Teachers non knowledge proprietors and technicians but active participants, facilitators and knowledable proctors that will react to scholars ‘ demands and abilities consequently and help them in the acquisition procedure ( Scott, 2001 ) .
Within the aims theoretical account of course of study, the scholar based learning rules can be to the full implemented, that is, non needfully to follow teacher based attacks. new wave Ek ( 1977 ) reexamining aims theoretical account notes that:
‘aˆ¦ . behavioural specification of an nonsubjective by no agency implies the demand for a behaviouristic instruction method. The manner in which the aim has been defined does non enforce any peculiar methodology-behavioristic or other-wise-on the instructor ‘ ( Ek, 1977 ) .
Furthermore, Tyler ( 1971 ) as cited in Walsh ( 1997 ) suggests to put wide aims instead than ‘numerous specific ‘ aims that would be excessively complicated to follow in pattern and curtail the guiding attacks. Surely, it is really complicated to put specific behavioural aims as the acquisition procedure is complex itself. And it is impossible to step into scholars ‘ head to measure the complete, pre-specified results of the acquisition procedure. However, in this context, it is preferred to put some wide aims explicitly with a intent of maintaining informed, foremost, instructors and programme direction and second, pupils, their parents and other concerned parties ( Walsh, 1997 ) . Besides, particular reference may be made of the fact that pupils ‘ and their parents ‘ perceptual experience of auxiliary tutoring in this context. They come and ask themselves what they will larn and cognize upon completion of each degree of the programme, how the acquisition procedure will be organized, what methods will be used and so on. They decide to fall in this programme with a intent and hope ( my accent ) of compensation of the mainstream instruction. And they are ready to put money in private tutoring even though most of those parents are unemployed and they barely support their households by agencies of small agriculture and working in the local markets ( in informal duologue with Bohdan Krawchenko, UCA manager ) . For another manus, instructors ‘ competences are to be taken into consideration as good[ 1 ]. Having considered their instruction background, it is advantageous for them to work with aims model instead than with process theoretical account of course of study planning as the latter puts a large force per unit area on the instructors ‘ competences and accomplishments which they have been missing for many old ages ( Kelly, 2009 ; Stenhouse, 1975 ) . As a whole, the aims theoretical account will relieve them both in managing and steering the acquisition procedure. Sadly adequate, but the instructors ‘ background does non let them to take more duties for the whole course of study, when they could promote pupils to follow ‘criticizing pattern ‘ place and demonstrate ‘originality ‘ in the acquisition procedure as it is suggested in the procedure course of study ( Stenhouse, 1975 ; Walsh, 1997 ) .
Making myself clearer, I briefly would wish to reply the inquiry set by Stenhouse ( 1975 ) that states ‘Can the demands of a course of study specification be met without utilizing the constructs of aims? ‘ I steadfastly believe it is really much possible. Furthermore, it is more advantageous and desirable to make so peculiarly in the given context of fast come oning globalisation in the society and economic system when kids will necessitate to possess critical point of views and will be engaged in that sort of larning procedure that would assist them to travel further and get new accomplishments independently ( Bruner, 2006 ) . However with due consideration of above mentioned grounds, in the context of the EiV programme it is sooner to utilize the constructs of aims. I believe any course of study planning demands to be incorporated into a design that will be in congruity with the political, socio-economic, cultural, and historical contexts in which a peculiar programme will be implemented ( Nunan, 1989 ) . If it is non, so a bringing of this peculiar course of study will be bound to failure, non matter whether it is aims, procedure or research theoretical account of course of study planning ( my accent ) .
Therefore, I would propose puting both purposes and aims, when purposes province more wide intents whereas aims place the coveted results of the acquisition procedure that is knowledge, accomplishments and values which scholars need or wish to get upon completion of each degree of the programme ( Hedge and Whitney, 1996 ; Lawton, 1973 ; Walsh, 1997 ) . As concomitant to these, the EiV programme direction and instructors need to set up both acquisition and learning schemes to work towards these aims. Then they need to look for ways of measuring and bettering the acquisition experiences provided by the EiV programme so that scholars successfully arrive at expected results. ( Hedge and Whitney, 1996 ; Nicholls and Nicholls, 1972 ; Tyler, 1971 ) .
The construction of the course of study needs to be communicated with the pupils and their parents. It would do them to go active participants of the acquisition procedure and portion the duties together with the programme direction and other concerned parties ( Scott, 2001 ) . Experientially, I strongly believe that it is more productive to work in a squad and portion the duties for larning between the stakeholders of the acquisition procedure, non merely like, programme direction staffs are experts, instructors are technicians and pupils are inactive scholars. I believe that seting blocks or labeling between these parties is non wise. Particularly, it is non wise and even immoral in the context of fast altering values and accomplishments required. Students are to be cognizant and encouraged as a linguistic communication scholar, in other words, they need to be motivated to larn the linguistic communication and they need to be cognizant of both learning ends and options. Finding out what is actuating and promoting them and how it can be used or focused on what is to be learned in the schoolroom is an of import portion of well-designed course of study with a focal point on effectual and pass oning instruction. A key to this procedure is giving pupils as much input to and command over their ain acquisition as it is possible while guaranting that the learning ends of the category are met ( Hedge and Whitney, 1996 ; Weimer, 2002 ) .
Before I start developing farther suggestions for the new EiV course of study, I would wish to paraphrase the inquiry set by Prof. Husbands ( during his talk 2009 ) that states “ What did n’t you larn that you wish you had? ” into “ How would you wish to be taught when you were a student? How would it alter your life so? ” and turn to it to myself.
I would reply so “ I wish I had more freedom and pick. I wish I was allowed to show my sentiment on how I would wish to larn or even to be taught. I wish I was treated every bit as an person instead than being treated as one the many empty vass ‘ .
Hence, based on my personal experience, I would propose puting the following wide instrumental purposes for the new re-designed course of study ( Murphy and Moon, 1999 ) :
To help the small town school students to go knowing, skilled and confident community members and citizens- who will well lend to the transitioning economic systems and communities of the part
‘To widen skylines and raise aspirationsA of the students about the universe of work and higher instruction ‘ ( borrowed from UK National Curriculum, KS3 and KS 4 ) -who will be able to react to the tendencies and demands of the part
To develop a degree of competence and assurance in utilizing English that allows the students to to the full take part in both societal and school-based contexts where the English has a dominant function
To develop English linguistic communication accomplishments to pass on across lingual and cultural boundaries
As Nation and Newton ( 2009, p.1 ) province ‘every good balanced EFL class programme needs to be based on the undermentioned strands:
Learning through intending – focussed input ; that is, larning through hearing and reading where the scholars ‘ attending is on the thoughts and messages conveyed by the linguistic communication
Learning through significance -focused end product, that is, larning through speech production and composing where the scholars ‘ attending is on conveying thoughts and messages to another individual
Learning through deliberate attending to linguistic communication points and linguistic communication characteristics ; that is, larning through direct vocabulary survey, through grammar exercisings and account, through attending to talk about characteristics, and through the deliberate acquisition and pattern of linguistic communication acquisition and linguistic communication usage schemes
Developing fluid usage of known linguistic communication points and characteristics over the four accomplishments of hearing, speech production, reading and composing ; that is, going fluent with what is already known.
Each of these four strands is to be given an equal clip allotment within a course of study planning. Consequently the redesigned course of study of the EiV programme should supply chances for both instructors and the students to be every bit focussed and involved in each of these strands ( Nation and Newton, 2009 ) .
Furthermore, I suggest following the undermentioned general pedagogical rules that are arranged around the ‘four strands ‘ as identified by Nation and Newton ( 2009 ) :
Provide and set up big sums of comprehendible and synergistic input through both hearing and reading. This can be organized by assorted reading exercisings, listening activities and the linguistic communication heard and communicating activities when the scholars are given a opportunity to speak and listen to each others ‘ input.
Organize assorted interaction activities such as group work, brace work, information spread undertakings, etc. that will assist them to work collaboratively on authorship and speech production accomplishments. In puting group plants or other similar synergistic activities, the pupils are to be introduced to working in groups and braces, that is,
Help the pupils to develop larning schemes that will help them in linguistic communication acquisition farther. This can be made possible though activities on thinking the significance of words and address forms from context, dictionary usage, vocabulary cards, etc.
Plan for the perennial coverage of the linguistic communication points that will develop the accomplishments that are specified and required in the aims of the course of study
Aid scholars to larn linguistic communication forms and points that are, sounds, spelling, vocabulary, multi-word units, and grammar. At the same clip, the instructors need to do certain that the pupils have adequate clip to finish the assigned undertakings
Use the on-going formative appraisal techniques with the intent of prosecuting the pupils to be active in and supervise their ain acquisition
Conduct mid-term and terminal of term summational appraisal for the intent of enfranchisement and passage into the following degree. The concluding grade for the intent of enfranchisement is to be based on the combined consequences of both mid-term and concluding term with the intent of doing the rating procedure more dependable ( Gardner, James and Stobart, 2006 ) .
Many scholars of English linguistic communication respect speech production and hearing as the most of import accomplishments they need to get during the learning procedure. They assess their degree of proficiency in English ( or are assessed by others ) in footings of their proficiency in spoken and listening accomplishments ( Florez, 1999 ; Revell, 1979 ) . I suggest to set more focal point
Finally, holding gone through my suggestions in re-designing the course of study for EiV programme, I assume I tried my best to propose a good negotiated aims theoretical account of course of study for this peculiar context with due history for all its factors ( Hedge, Andon and Dewey, 2009 ) .