The Philippines officially known as the Republic of the Philippines, is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. The Philippines is a constitutional republic with a presidential system of government. It is governed as a unitary state with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which is largely free from the national government. The President of the Philippines is the head of state governing the country.
According to the Philippine government, the office has been held by politicians who were inaugurated as President of the Philippines following the ratification of a constitution that explicitly declared the existence of the Philippines Philippine Presidents, which are locally known as “Ang Pangulo”, are the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. Philippine Presidents serve a term of six years in office. The President of the Philippines heads the Executive Branch of the government that includes the Cabinet and all executive departments.
The President of the Philippines is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Philippines has undergone many transitions in the government from the First Philippine Republic going to the Fifth Philippine Republic. Note that the Presidents under the Commonwealth of the Philippines were under United States sovereignty, and that of the Second Republic is considered to be a puppet government of the Japanese during World War II The country has had a total of fifteen Philippine Presidents. Below is the list of the Presidents of the Philippines.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council. There have been attempts to change the government to a federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration. In order to become informed participants in a democracy, students must learn about the women and men who make decisions concerning their lives, their country, and the world. The president of the Philippines is one such leader.
As a nation, we place no greater responsibility on any one individual than we do on the president. Through these lessons, students learn about the roles and responsibilities of the Philippine president and their own roles as citizens of a democracy. The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the PhilippinesThe President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo .
Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. The president appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments, members of the Constitutional Commissions, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in the 1987 Constitution. The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council.
These appointments do not need the consent of the Commission on Appointments. 1 The president should provide leadership to the profession, the Board and the membership. He should also plan and chair Board and general meetings. To act as the main liaison between the Board and the executive director. 2 The president should provide leadership to the profession, the Board and the membership. He should also plan and chair Board and general meetings. To act as the main liaison between the Board and the executive director. 3 The president should provide leadership to the profession, the Board and the membership.
He should also plan and chair Board and general meetings. To act as the main liaison between the Board and the executive director. General Emilio F. Aguinaldo. First President of the Republic of the Philippines. Aguinaldo’s presidential term formally began in 1898 and ended on April 1, 1901, when he took an oath of allegiance to the United States a week after his capture in Palanan, Isabela. His term also featured the setting up of the Malolos Republic, which has its own Congress, Constitution, and national and local officialdom — proving Filipinos also had the capacity to build.
Aguinaldo is best remembered for the proclamation of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898, in Kawit, Cavite. Manuel L. Quezon. First of the Philippine Presidents of the Commonwealth. He won the elections held in September 1935 to choose the head of the Commonwealth Government. It was a government made possible by the Tydings-McDuffie Law, which Quezon secured from the U. S. Quezon’s term (1935 – 1944), though chiefly known for making Pilipino the national language, tried to solve nagging problems inherited from the Spanish and American administrations. The Commonwealth Government was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of 1941.
Quezon and his government were forced to go into exile in the U. S. He died on August 1, 1944, in New York. Jose P. Laurel. President of the Second Republic of the Philippines. He was elected by the National Assembly as President of the Republic on September 25, 1943 and inducted on October 14, 1943. This unicameral assembly was created through the sponsorship of the Japanese authorities. Sergio Osmena. Second President of the Philippine Commonwealth. He was elected Vice President of the Philippines in 1935 and succeeded Quezon to the Presidency in-exile. Manuel A. Roxas.
Last of the Philippine Presidents of the Philippine Commonwealth. First President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. He won the elections by a slim margin. He was inaugurated on July 4, 1946, the day the U. S. government granted political independence to its colony. The short-lived Roxas administration (1946 – 1948) embarked on a course that resulted in what were considered as his greatest achievements, namely: the ratification of the Bell Trade Act; the inclusion of the Parity Amendment in the Constitution; and the signing of the 1947 Military Bases Agreement.
Roxas was not able to complete his presidential term; he died from a heart attack at Clark Air base on April 15, 1948. Elpidio Quirino. Second President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. Being the Vice President, he took over the Presidency after Roxas’ death. And, he managed to retain the position after winning over Laurel in the infamous fraud-tainted 1949 elections. The Quirino administration (1948 – 1953) focused on two objectives: 1) to regain faith and confidence in the government; and 2) to restore peace and order.
He was more successful in the second objective – breaking the back of the Hukbalahap Movement in Central Luzon. Ramon Magsaysay. Third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. He was largely famous for his success in the peace campaign. He defeated Quirino in the 1953 presidential elections by an unprecedented margin of votes. Many regard Magsaysay as one of the Philippine Presidents whose heart truly bled for the common man. He toured the barrios, opened up Malacanang to the public, solicited and acted upon their complaints, built artesian wells and roads.
He had Congress pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954, providing greater protection to tenants. Death came to Magsaysay when his plane crashed at Mount Pinatubo in the early morning of March 17, 1957. Carlos P. Garcia. Fourth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines He presided over the eight months of Magsaysay’s remaining term and went on to win the 1957 elections, “the noisiest and the most expensive in Philippine history. ” Garcia’s administration (1957 – 1961) was anchored in his austerity program. It was also noted for its Filipino First policy – an attempt to boost economic independence.
Diosdado Macapagal. Fifth President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. He defeated Garcia in the presidential elections of November 14, 1961. Mapacagal – who styled himself as the “poor boy” from Lubao (Pampanga) – completed pre-law and Associate in Arts at UP; however, he was a law graduate of the University of Santo Tomas. Macapagal’s administration (1961 – 1965) is best remembered for resetting the date of the celebration of Philippine Independence Day – from July 4 when the U. S. turned over the reins of government in 1946 to the more correct date of June 12 when Aguinaldo declared independence in 1898.
Ferdinand E. Marcos. Sixth and last President of the Third Republic of the Philippines. He defeated Macapagal in the 1965 presidential elections. And the two-decade era of Marcos (1965 – 1986) began. Marcos entered politics with an eye to eventually capturing the presidency. In his maiden campaign in 1949, he said: “Elect me your congressman now and I’ll give you an Ilokano President in 20 years. ” He won that election and was returned thrice to Congress as Ilocos Norte’s congressman. In 1959, he was elected to the Philippine Senate and in 1963, he became its president.
Completing the presidential term in 1969, he won a reelection . In 1972, he declared martial law. The rest, as the most infamous of Philippine Presidents is history. Corazon C. Aquino. First President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines. First Woman among Philippine Presidents of the Republic of the Philippines. President from 1986 to 1992, she is associated with the EDSA Revolt. She refused to run for reelection in the 1992 presidential elections; but instead endorsed and worked very hard for her chosen candidate – Fidel V. Ramos. Fidel V. Ramos. Second President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines.
He was the military hero of the February 1986 Philippine People Power Revolution and victor of the first multiparty presidential elections in 1992, thus becoming the 12th President of the Republic of the Philippines. Joseph M. Estrada. Third President of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines. As vice president, Estrada headed an anticrime commission from 1992 to 1997. In 1998 Estrada won the Philippine presidential elections. In October 2000 he became mired in a corruption scandal, however, and the House of Representatives impeached him in November. Estrada was forced from power on January 20.
That day, the Supreme Court declared the presidency vacant, effectively ousting Estrada from office, and Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was sworn in as president. Gloria M. Arroyo. Fourth of the Philippine Presidents of the Fifth Republic of the Philippines. She is the incumbent President. She replaced deposed president Joseph Estrada midway through his six-year term. She is the 14th president of the republic and the second woman to hold the office. Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino II also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy , is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010. 3] Aquino is a fourth-generation politician: his great-grandfather, Servillano “Mianong” Aquino, served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress; his grandfather, Benigno Aquino, Sr. , served as Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1943 to 1944; and his parents were President Corazon Aquino and Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr. Aquino is a member of the Liberal Party.  In the Liberal Party, Aquino held various positions such as Secretary General and Vice President forLuzon. Aquino is currently the Chairman of the Liberal Party
The line of Philippine Presidents is considered to be continuous in spite of many changes in constitutions and forms of government. While Emilio Aguinaldo is traditionally considered to be the first, and youngest ever, Philippine president, the revolutionary Republica Filipina, formed after the Philippine revolution, was not recognized by other states at that time (although it is now considered to be the first Southeast Asian republic). Following the Philippine-American War, the United States created the Philippine Commonwealth, supposed to be a transitional government in preparation for full independence.
Manuel L. Quezon, the first President of the Commonwealth and the first Philippine President elected into office, was considered by the United States to be the first Philippine President of the first Philippine Republic. At one point, the Philippines had two presidents heading two governments at the same time. This occurred during World War II, when Japan occupied the country. One president was Manuel L. Quezon heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile in America(considered de jure) and the other was J. P.
Laurel, who had been instructed by Quezon to remain in Manila, heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto). Laurel, however, was not formally recognized as a Philippine president until the Macapagaladministration. However, as Laurel’s “puppet” republic was formally rejected after World War II and none of its statutes or actions were considered legal or binding, it would be inaccurate to consider Laurel the successor of Osmena or vice versa. Laurel, the first and only President of the Second Republic, had no predecessor and successor, while Osmena was Quezon’s successor and Roxas was Osmena’s successor.
Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1986) was the President with the longest term (over twenty years) and the most reelections (four, counting the 1986 snap elections). He was first elected in 1965 to serve a four-year term. Since under the 1935 Constitution, a President may run for reelection but may not serve for more than 8 years, he was reelected in 1969, to serve until 1972. Before his term ended, however, he declared Martial Law in 1972, which allowed him to stay in power until it was lifted in 1981.
In 1973, however, he called for aConstitutional Convention, which produced the 1973 Constitution, under which the President has a six-year term but has no limitation on reelection. In 1981, Marcos was reelected for the third time. He called for a snap election in 1986 to allay escalating public discontent, and was again proclaimed the winner. However, he was ousted shortly afterwards by theEDSA People Power Revolution. To date, he is also the last Senate President to be elected President of the Philippines (the first Senate President to be elected Philippine President was Manuel L.
Quezon, who served the second longest term (nine years, from 1935 until his death in 1944) and the second most number of reelections (he was reelected twice). ) Marcos’s successor was the Philippines’ first female President, Corazon Aquino, installed as President by the EDSA Revolution of 1986. The second female President is Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, also installed as President by the so-called EDSA Dos which ousted Joseph Estrada. Estrada is now the first Philippine President to be tried and convicted of plunder committed during his term of office ———————– | | | |